This relationship between power, resources and research is interesting. Harari mentions this relationship is very explicit from the time of scientific revolutions. Probably you could extrapolate into the times before 15th and 16th century CE.
A society where every nation and every person is equal is not easily achievable. But a society of terrible inequality is unacceptable. Now let’s come back to the same figure. There is a circle of power, resources and research. If uncontrolled, the circle goes by itself (survival of the fittest); as times moves, some may be thrown out of the circle. Few clever (or lucky) ones may enter the circle too. But does the power, available to each person (or only a few) increases as the circle move? Does the resources get more equally shared? Does research benefits reach more people? If not what could be done, to make more equitable and just.
One aspect was the reservation. India had some success in it. Still majority of the oppressed is in bad condition. The condition of the poor higher caste also requires attention. And on the other side, the super-rich are getting richer. The inequality (especially economical) is increasing. A very small minority controls the huge wealth of the world (probably they consider themselves to be minor gods if you consider that there are many Gods). A forced re-distribution may not be workable or won’t work too. What are the other options to enter the circle?
Another efficacious model is various types of welfare and empowerment activities undertaken by various people. NGO’s offering special study facilities to underprivileged children, doctors working at rural areas and many other initiatives help atleast a few more to enter the circle. A researcher working to produce cheaper technology or alternative technologies available to the poor is another good example. CSR of the companies are supposed to do this.
Personally I don’t think the circle itself is vicious. But when the privileged doesn’t allow the entry of others (obviously through legal means), it is a problematic structure. Let us encourage efforts to make the entry more smooth and let more people be part it.